IoT service classification and clustering for integration of IoT service platforms

Title : IoT service classification and clustering for integration of IoT service platforms
Journal : The Journal of Supercomputing
Authors : Daewon Lee, HwaMin Lee
Corresponding author : HwaMin Lee
DOI : https://doi.org/10.1007/s11227-018-2288-7

Abstract
With the rapid development of sensors, wireless communication, and cloud computing, information technology today focuses on service environments created by the Internet of Things (IoT). IoT technologies have become widely used in various contexts including smart homes, building management, surveillance services, and smart farms. Some IoT applications such as Siri are popular in everyday life. IoT requires communication and interaction between various devices and services. To solve the various complex problems associated with IoT services, earlier research focused on IoT service platforms such as gateways and mobile edge computing services. However, the similarities and reusabilities of IoT services have received little attention. In this paper, we develop an IoT service classification and clustering system. We classify the operation of an IoT service into four steps that differ in their characteristics. Based on this classification, we extend the classic EM (expectation–maximization) algorithm to cluster IoT services in terms of their similarities. To validate our proposed classification and clustering system, we divide over 100 commercial IoT services into five clusters, showing that such services are well clustered by similarity and purpose.

Acknowledgments
This research was supported by Next-Generation Information Computing Development Program and Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT (NRF-2017M3C4A7083417 & NRF-2016R1C1B1008330).

Byzantine-resilient dual gossip membership management in clouds

Title : Byzantine-resilient dual gossip membership management in clouds
Journal : Soft Computing
Authors : JongBeom Lim, Kwang-Sik Chung, HwaMin Lee, Kangbin Yim, Heonchang Yu
Corresponding author : Heonchang Yu
DOI : https://doi.org/10.1007/s00500-017-2553-3

Abstract
In this paper, we present an effective and efficient Byzantine-resilient dual membership management technique in cloud environments, in which nodes are prone to churn and the network topology is not fully connected. Our method is based on unstructured message communication model, namely a gossip protocol that is able to handle the dynamic behavior of nodes properly in the system. We argue that due to the presence of malicious Byzantine nodes, existing membership management mechanisms are not suitable for preserving uniformity of random sampling. Therefore, we propose a new membership management mechanism using gossip with social membership information. The proposed membership management scheme maintains not only neighbor nodes in a social graph, but also Byzantine nodes in a local data structure. The results show that our dual membership management effectively deals with Byzantine nodes, requiring only n ≥ 2f + 1, where n is the number of nodes and f is the number of Byzantine nodes in the system. The message complexity is reduced from O(n 2) to O(n) with our proposed algorithm compared to broadcast-based algorithms.

Acknowledgments
This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF-2015R1D1A1A01061373).

Classification of Premature Ventricular Contraction using Error Back-Propagation

Title : Classification of Premature Ventricular Contraction using Error Back-Propagation
Journal : KSII Transactions on Internet and Information Systems
Authors : Eunkwang Jeon, Bong-Keun Jung, Yunyoung Nam, HwaMin Lee
Corresponding author : HwaMin Lee
DOI : http://doi.org/10.3837/tiis.2018.02.028

Abstract
Arrhythmia has recently emerged as one of the major causes of death in Koreans. Premature Ventricular Contraction (PVC) is the most common arrhythmia that can be found in clinical practice, and it may be a precursor to dangerous arrhythmias, such as paroxysmal insomnia, ventricular fibrillation, and coronary artery disease. Therefore, we need for a method that can detect an abnormal heart beat and diagnose arrhythmia early. We extracted the features corresponding to the QRS pattern from the subject’s ECG signal and classify the premature ventricular contraction waveform using the features. We modified the weighting and bias values based on the error back-propagation algorithm through learning data. We classify the normal signal and the premature ventricular contraction signal through the modified weights and deflection values. MIT-BIH arrhythmia data sets were used for performance tests. We used RR interval, QS interval, QR amplitude and RS amplitude features. And the hidden layer with two nodes is composed of two layers to form a total three layers (input layer 0, output layer 3).

Acknowledgments
A preliminary version of this paper was presented at APIC-IST 2017, and was selected as an outstanding paper. This research was financially supported by the “ICT Convergence Smart Rehabilitation Industrial Education Program” through the Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy (MOTIE) and Korea Institute for Advancement of Technology (KIAT) and by the Soonchunhyang University Research Fund.

Implementation of Android Application for Indoor Positioning System with Estimote BLE Beacons

Title : Implementation of Android Application for Indoor Positioning System with Estimote BLE Beacons
Journal : Journal of Internet Technology
Authors : Wook Song, HwaMin Lee, Seung-Hyun Lee, Min-Hyung Choi, Min Hong
Corresponding author : Min Hong
DOI : https://doi.org/10.3966/160792642018051903022

Abstract
Due to recent advances in IoT (Internet of Things) related technology, demands of highly accurate indoor positioning system and services have been remarkably increased. The proposed indoor positioning system utilizes 4 Estimote BLE (Bluetooth Low Energy) beacons to measure the user position with a smartphone. Each beacon broadcasts radio signal and a smartphone can receive these signals to estimate the distance by measuring RSSI (Received Signal Strength Indicator) values. In this paper, we proposed a new estimation algorithm to robustly calculate a user’s position based on the strength of received signals. The proposed algorithm collects signals at a pre-processing stage to improve the quality of RSSI values, calculates the distance according to the signal strength from each beacon, and then estimates the user position with the triangulation of overlapped regions. The experimental result of our proposed indoor positioning system shows approximately 80% of accuracy within 2m error bound for three types of room. The proposed indoor position tracking is simple and well-suited with low-cost BLE beacons.

Acknowledgments
A preliminary version of this paper was presented at ICONI 2015, and was selected as an outstanding paper. This research was supported by the MSIP (Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning), Korea, under the ITRC (Information Technology Research Center) support program (IITP-2016-H8601-16-1009) supervised by the IITP (Institute for Information & communications Technology Promotion) and was supported by the Soonchunhyang University Research Fund.

Numerical analysis and modeling for crack width calculation using IoT in reinforced concrete members

Title : Numerical analysis and modeling for crack width calculation using IoT in reinforced concrete members
Journal : Journal of Ambient Intelligence and Humanized Computing
Authors : Kiyeol Lee, HwaMin Lee
Corresponding author : HwaMin Lee
DOI : https://doi.org/10.1007/s12652-017-0543-z

Abstract
The health of concrete structures is important because collapse of these structures can cause damage for humans. This paper presents an analytical model for calculation of crack widths in structural concrete members using Internet of Things. The model is mathematically derived from the actual bond stress-slip relationship between the reinforcing steel and the surrounding concrete. The relationships summarized in CEB-FIP Model Code 1990 and Eurocode 2 are used in this study together with the numerical analysis result of a linear slip distribution along the interface at the stabilized cracking stage. With these, the actual strains of the steel and the concrete are integrated respectively along the embedment length between the adjacent cracks to obtain the difference in the axial elongation. This model is applied to the test results available in literature. The predicted values are shown to be in agreement with the experimentally measured data.

Acknowledgments
This research was supported by the MSIP (Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning), Korea, under the ITRC (Information Technology Research Center) support program (IITP 2017-2015-0-00403) supervised by the IITP (Institute for Information and communications Technology Promotion) and by the Soonchunhyang University Research Fund.

Proxy Based Seamless Connection Management Scheme for Smart Transportation Service

Title : Proxy Based Seamless Connection Management Scheme for Smart Transportation Service
Journal : Wireless Personal Communications
Authors : HwaMin Lee, Daeyong Jung, DaeWon Lee
Corresponding author : DaeWon Lee
DOI : https://doi.org/10.1007/s11277-015-3134-3

Abstract
Nowadays, complex IoT devices are developed that support smart transportation service, medical alarm service, and smart surveillance camera which require communication to the computation server. Most of IoT devices communicate to their servers on fixed network through wireless channel. In this paper, we are focused on smart transportation service that is one of bus, train, airplane or ship that takes embedded IoT devices and passengers using IoT devices. Embedded IoT devices are communicated with embedded access router (AR) on transportation by Bluetooth/Z-wave/NFC, and passengers’ IoT devices are communicated with their own egg/AR on fixed network, or public AR on transportation. Transportation environment has a major problem that mobile node moves fast through multiple cells. Each IoT device in transportation keeps updating its current point of attachment to its home agent and corresponding node. To overcome this problem we consider feature of transportation. It has two major features. The one is mobile device has fast mobility by transportation. The other one is mobile device moves fixed route. It causes mobile device has intra mobility between several subnets of one agency when it moves into a subway or highway. Based on two features, we design proxy based architecture and extend router advertisement message to alert join in proxy domain. Then, we are classified the mobility into intra proxy mobility and global mobility. And we proposed proxy based mobility management scheme using prediction algorithm. By numerical analysis, we shows proposed scheme reduces signaling overheads and increase packet transfer rate than NEMO and proxy MIP.

Acknowledgments
This research was supported by the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (MSIP), Korea, under the Information Technology Research Center (ITRC) support program (IITP-2015-R0992-15-1006) supervised by the Institute for Information & communications Technology Promotion (IITP) and the Soonchunhyang University Research Fund.

A low cost wearable wireless sensing system for paretic hand management after stroke

Title : A low cost wearable wireless sensing system for paretic hand management after stroke
Journal : The Journal of Supercomputing
Authors : Se-Dong Min, Chang-Won Wang, Hwa-Min Lee, Bong-Keun Jung
Corresponding author : Bong-Keun Jung
DOI : https://doi.org/10.1007/s11227-016-1787-7

Abstract
This paper describes the design of a low cost wearable hand exercise device that can assist repetitive wrist and finger exercise for stroke patients. The design of this device was guided by neurobiological principles of motor learning, such as sensory-motor integration, movement repetition, and cognitive interaction. This pilot study tested the efficacy of a wireless sensing system in the device to serve as a facilitator of repetitive hand exercise, which is an essential part of rehabilitation after stroke. The results from healthy young adults showed that the device with a wireless sensing system yielded quantitatively better motor function with the repetitive wrist and finger joint movements.This proof-of-concept study shows potential therapeutic evidence for stroke rehabilitation as well as the potential utility of sensing system for stroke rehabilitation.

Acknowledgments
“This work was supported by the Soonchunhyang University Research Fund and the MSIP (Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning), Korea, under the C-ITRC (Convergence Information Technology Research Center) support program (IITP-2015-H8601-15-1009) supervised by the NIPA (National IT Industry Promotion Agency)”.

An efficient distributed mutual exclusion algorithm for intersection traffic control

Title : An efficient distributed mutual exclusion algorithm for intersection traffic control
Journal : The Journal of Supercomputing
Authors : JongBeom Lim, Young Sik Jeong, Doo-Soon Park, HwaMin Lee
Corresponding author : HwaMin Lee
DOI : https://doi.org/10.1007/s11227-016-1799-3

Abstract
As vehicular networking has recently been developed and commercialized, vehicular cloud computing has received much attention in various research areas, such as intelligent transportation systems and vehicular ad hoc networks. An efficient intersection traffic control using vehicular cloud computing is one of the key research topics in intelligent transportation systems. To efficiently deal with intersection traffic control via vehicle-to-vehicle communications, we design a distributed mutual exclusion algorithm that does not rely on broadcast, which introduces communication overheads; instead, our algorithm use point-to-point messages sent between the vehicles to keep network traffic load lower. In our algorithmic design, to pass an intersection, the lead vehicle on a lane must get permissions from a subset of other vehicles and its following vehicles on the same lane can follow the lead vehicle without permissions unlike the previous research. To evaluate the performance of our distributed mutual exclusion algorithm, we conduct extensive experiments. The results show that our algorithmic design is both effective and efficient.

Acknowledgments
This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF-2014R1A1A2057878) and by the Soonchunhyang University Research Fund.

Mining λ-Maximal Cliques from a Fuzzy Graph

Title : Mining λ-Maximal Cliques from a Fuzzy Graph
Journal : Sustainability
Authors : Fei Hao, Doo-Soon Park, Shuai Li, Hwa Min Lee
Corresponding author : Doo-Soon Park
DOI : https://doi.org/10.3390/su8060553

Abstract
The depletion of natural resources in the last century now threatens our planet and the life of future generations. For the sake of sustainable development, this paper pioneers an interesting and practical problem of dense substructure (i.e., maximal cliques) mining in a fuzzy graph where the edges are weighted by the degree of membership. For parameter 0 1 (also called fuzzy cut in fuzzy logic), a newly defined concept λ-maximal clique is introduced in a fuzzy graph. In order to detect the λ-maximal cliques from a fuzzy graph, an efficient mining algorithm based on Fuzzy Formal Concept Analysis (FFCA) is proposed. Extensive experimental evaluations are conducted for demonstrating the feasibility of the algorithm. In addition, a novel recommendation service based on an λ-maximal clique is provided for illustrating the sustainable usability of the problem addressed.

Acknowledgments
This research was supported by the MSIP (Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning), Korea, under the ITRC (Information Technology Research Center) support program (IITP-2016-H8601-16-1009) supervised by the IITP (Institute for Information & communications Technology Promotion), and was partly supported by the Shanxi Scholarship Council of China (No. 2015-068) and National Nature Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61372187).

Multi-Agent System for Fault Tolerance in Wireless Sensor Networks

Title : Multi-Agent System for Fault Tolerance in Wireless Sensor Networks
Journal : KSII Transactions on Internet and Information Systems
Authors : HwaMin Lee, Se Dong Min, Min-Hyung Choi, DaeWon Lee
Corresponding author : DaeWon Lee
DOI : https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-9341-9_32

Abstract
Wireless sensor networks (WSN) are self-organized networks that typically consist of thousands of low-cost, low-powered sensor nodes. The reliability and availability of WSNs can be affected by faults, including those from radio interference, battery exhaustion, hardware and software failures, communication link errors, malicious attacks, and so on. Thus, we propose a novel multi-agent fault tolerant system for wireless sensor networks. Since a major requirement of WSNs is to reduce energy consumption, we use multi-agent and mobile agent configurations to manage WSNs that provide energy-efficient services. Mobile agent architecture have inherent advantages in that they provide energy awareness, scalability, reliability, and extensibility. Our multi-agent system consists of a resource manager, a fault tolerance manager and a load balancing manager, and we also propose fault-tolerant protocols that use multi-agent and mobile agent setups.

Acknowledgments
A preliminary version of this paper was presented at APIC-IST 2015, and was selected as an outstanding paper. This research was supported by the Soonchunhyang University Research Fund and This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education(NRF-2014R1A1A2057878)