Impact of Acid-Base Status on Mortality in Patients with Acute Pesticide Poisoning

Title : Impact of Acid-Base Status on Mortality in Patients with Acute Pesticide Poisoning
Journal : toxics
Authors : Hyo-Wook Gil, Min Hong, HwaMin Lee, Nam-Jun Cho, Eun-Young Lee, Samel Park
Corresponding author : Samel Park
DOI : https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics9020022

Abstract
We investigated clinical impacts of various acid-base approaches (physiologic, base excess (BE)-based, and physicochemical) on mortality in patients with acute pesticide intoxication and mutual intercorrelated effects using principal component analysis (PCA). This retrospective study included patients admitted from January 2015 to December 2019 because of pesticide intoxication. We compared parameters assessing the acid-base status between two groups, survivors and non-survivors. Associations between parameters and 30-days mortality were investigated. A total of 797 patients were analyzed. In non-survivors, pH, bicarbonate concentration (HCO3−), total concentration of carbon dioxide (tCO2), BE, and effective strong ion difference (SIDe) were lower and apparent strong ion difference (SIDa), strong ion gap (SIG), total concentration of weak acids, and corrected anion gap (corAG) were higher than in survivors. In the multivariable logistic analysis, BE, corAG, SIDa, and SIDe were associated with mortality. PCA identified four principal components related to mortality. SIDe, HCO3−, tCO2, BE, SIG, and corAG were loaded to principal component 1 (PC1), referred as total buffer bases to receive and handle generated acids. PC1 was an important factor in predicting mortality irrespective of the pesticide category. PC3, loaded mainly with pCO2, suggested respiratory components of the acid-base system. PC3 was associated with 30-days mortality, especially in organophosphate or carbamate poisoning. Our study showed that acid-base abnormalities were associated with mortality in patients with acute pesticide poisoning. We reduced these variables into four PCs, resembling the physicochemical approach, revealed that PCs representing total buffer bases and respiratory components played an important role in acute pesticide poisoning.

Acknowledgments
This research was supported by the Bio and Medical Technology Development Program of the National Research Foundation (NRF) funded by the Korean government (MSIT) (No. NRF-2019M3E5D1A02069073) and by the Soonchunhyang University Research Fund.

Design of Middleware to Support Auto-scaling in Docker-Based Multi Host Environment

Title : Design of Middleware to Support Auto-scaling in Docker-Based Multi Host Environment
Journal : Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering book
Authors : Minsu Chae, Sangwook Han, HwaMin Lee
Corresponding author : HwaMin Lee
DOI : https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-9343-7_42

Abstract
With the spread of smart devices, the use of big data, and the proliferation of the Internet of Things, virtualization technology for cloud servers have become important worldwide. Also, research has been conducted to efficiently manage the resources of hosts in VMs. Container-based virtualization has less performance degradation than VMs because there is no emulation for the operating system. Using the Docker API is slow to measure. In this paper, we implement the resource measurement module of Job nodes and design middleware that supports auto-scaling in auto-scaling module and Docker-based multi-host environment.

Acknowledgments
This research supported by the MSIT (Ministry of Science and ICT), Korea, under the ITRC (Information Technology Research Center) support program (IITP-2019-2014-1-00720 & IITP-2019-2015-0-00403) supervised by the IITP (Institute for Information & communications Technology Planning & Evaluation).